Not only the biological sex and gender of research subjects is important in the analysis of clinical studies, but also the sex of cells and the hormonal context in which in vitro studies include sex in their model. While many intrinsic characteristics of cells are hormone-dependent, cells also appear to exhibit different variations after exposure to sex hormones. Female and male cells respond differently to chemical and microbial stressors and yet sex is mostly ignored and rarely reported in cell lines studied in vitro. 
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Last changed: 2021-03-02 12:35:38